What is an appendix
An appendix is a part of the large intestine located in the abdomen. It is known to be vestigial ( functionless). Studies suggest its role in the functioning of the immune system.
What is appendiceal cancer?
Appendix cancer is when the cells in the appendix start to divide uncontrollably. It occurs in 1 to 2 in 1 million people and is common in people ages 50-55.
How do we diagnose appendiceal cancer
1. Imaging technique:
If one finds symptoms, they can opt for imaging techniques such as CT (Computed tomography) or MRI (Magnetic resonance imaging )
In the CT Imaging technique that creates a three-dimensional image of the area using X-rays, while
MRI technique uses radio waves to generate pictures of internal organs or tissues to visualize the affected organs.
Biopsy means to excise a part of the affected tissue or organ for examination. We use a fine needle to make an incision into the abdomen. The sample is collected and then sent to the pathologist for examination. It helps to determine whether the cells are cancerous or what is the severity of the disease.
In Laparoscopy, a thin tube fitted with a camera is inserted into the abdomen. The camera helps to obtain the image of the affected part. A surgical tool is then used to excise the tissue for biopsy.
4. Lab test done on biopsy sample
The tissue sample is tested for protein levels. It helps to find the stage of cancer.
Appendiceal cancer remains asymptomatic at first. It is diagnosed in cases of appendicitis (resection of the appendix). Symptoms are only prevalent at an advanced stage ( where the cancerous cells have metastasized to other parts)
What are the symptoms of appendicular cancer
Common symptoms of appendicular cancer include
- Abdominal pain
- Mass in the abdomen
- Increased abdominal size
- Nausea and vomiting
- Bloating and diarrhea
What are the types of appendicular cancer
This type of cancer is also known as epithelial appendiceal cancer. It occurs when the cells lining the appendix ( epithelial cells ) turn cancerous and produce more mucin. Mucin is a glycosylated protein that lines the Gastrointestinal and respiratory tract. The role of mucin is to provide lubrication for the passage of food and in the airways of the respiratory tract. A large amount of mucin building up can rupture the appendix. The condition of the buildup of mucin in the abdomen is called PMP (pseudomyxoma peritonei). The tumor ruptures and then affects other parts of the peritoneum cavity.
Mucinous adenocarcinoma can be :
1.Low-grade Mucinous adenocarcinoma : Mucin-producing cells look like normal cells.
These are non-invasive but still cause pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP).
2.High-grade Mucinous adenocarcinoma: The cancerous cells may have a signet ring cell component. (cells that appear like a signet ring). These are more aggressive. The complications include weight loss, pain, bloating, and bowel obstruction
Extraperitoneal metastasis ( when the cancer cells metastasize to parts other than the peritoneum) happens only in rare cases.
2.Colonic type adenocarcinoma
The symptoms are very similar to colon cancer. Appendectomy( surgical removal of the appendix) is performed generally for grades 1 and 2 with no angiolymphatic invasion( invasion of cancerous cells to blood vessels and lymph nodes)
This type of cancer usually metastasizes to the peritoneum or in rare cases - the Ovaries.
Neuroendocrine carcinoma is also known as appendiceal carcinoid tumor. It is the most common appendiceal cancer.It arises in neuroendocrine cells ( cells similar to nerve and hormone-producing cells). It arises in the jejunum/ileum, appendix, or caecum. In very rare cases, it can metastasize to the liver.
4.Goblet cell adenocarcinoma
Goblet cell adenocarcinoma, also known as Goblet cell Carcinoid accounts for 14 to 19 % of cases in Appendiceal cancer. The tumor shows the presence of goblet cells(cells that produce mucus), with epithelial and neuroendocrine elements.ALthough there are no According to reports from China, Goblet cell adenocarcinoma is associated with schistosomiasis(a disease caused due to parasitic worms).
We at Cion Cancer Clinics provide specialized treatment for all types of appendix cancer, starting from the initial diagnosis and extending through the various stages of treatment. Our approach encompasses a wide range of medical services, including diagnostic assessments, imaging, surgical interventions, and chemotherapy.
Our team consists of highly trained and experienced experts in the field of oncology, including oncologic surgeons and radiologists. These professionals are committed to delivering the highest standard of care and employing the latest advancements in cancer treatment to ensure the best possible outcomes for our patients.
If you want to know more about our services, call us at 1800 120 2676 or fill out a form at the following link